Foreword and Introduction
After our article on the production of graphics cards ("From the bare board to the pretty packaging – graphics card production quickly explained") and the unexpectedly high response to them, today we want to "feed" the very curious with even more details, because Such information and insights behind the scenes are a supposed niche topic, which most editors are reluctant to do, but these topics also have their raison d'etre, as the reader's feedback repeatedly impressively shows.
That's why (certainly not only) my personal thanks and our forum member Thomas Haase (Deridex), who knows his way as an industry insider really well. And so he will start with the basics, explain all the details in an easy-to-understand way and also offer a glossary in which all technical terms and terms are explained in detail once again. You really can't have it any more beautiful and so this time I limit myself to the foreword and leave the article as such in the original.
Igor had already given a rough overview of the production of graphics cards. This article now refers a little more to the general production of electronic assemblies by a so-called EMS service provider (Electronic Manufacturing Services) and goes into a little more detail. I hope I have managed to explain something in a comprehensible way. In the article I refer exclusively to the work of an EMS service provider or in German "wage payer". I do not go into the development and production of the actual printed circuit boards here, as this would go beyond any frame for a single article.
I myself had the "pleasure" of going through the training with a wage payer and i still worked there a few years later. In the meantime, I am working in electronics development myself. The photos were taken by Igor Wallossek. Thank you for permission to use them and, if necessary, to be allowed to process. Most EMS service providers are well or badly strict about photography. However, I can understand that. On the other hand, I created the sketches and graphics myself. The article was updated after some hints in the forum of Igor'sLAB. Thanks to the community!
Overall, the work of the EMS service provider is structured as follows:
Glossary (declaration of concept)
In order to keep the following text comprehensible to the Llaien, this time we simply pack the glossary, i.e. the exact definition, to the beginning of the article. If you always want it ready, simply open the next page in a new tab or window and switch back and forth.
|Smd||Surface mount device: Components attached to the surface of the printed circuit board|
|Tht||Through hole termination: Components that are inserted through the circuit board|
|Gerber data||Data exchange format for the data of a printed circuit board|
|Drill data||Drilling data of a printed circuit board. Also contains the information whether the hole is contacted or not.|
|BoM||Bill of Material or in good English: BOM|
|Pick&Place Data||Position data of the components that are mounted on the printed circuit board|
|Squeele||Application of the solder paste for SMD components|
|Solder paste||Lot granules with flux|
|Reflow soldering||Soldering process for soldering SMD components|
|Steam phase soldering||Soldering process for soldering SMD components|
|Wave soldering||Soldering process for soldering THT components, in which the entire printed circuit board is driven via a soldering shaft|
|Selective soldering||Soldering process for soldering THT components, in which the soldering points are selectively soldered|
|Forecast||Advance planning for the expected order situation|
|Placement plan||Graphic plan showing the position of the components to be stocked|
|Layerstack||Layer structure of a printed circuit board|
|Aoi||Automatical optical inspection; In English: Automatic optical inspection|
|Fluxer (soldering)||Device for applying flux|
|Flux (soldering)||Addition to the solder to remove oxides on the surfaces to be soldered and thus improve wetting with solder.|
|Whisker (soldering)||Conductive single crystals that can develop at the soldering point after many years under certain circumstances.|
|Tombstoneeffect||The independent setting of SMD components during the soldering process|
|Via||Common English term for through-contacting|
||Printed Circuit Board (PCB, printed circuit)|
||Electrostatic sensitive components|